Online JudgeProblem SetAuthorsOnline ContestsUser
Web Board
Home Page
F.A.Qs
Statistical Charts
Problems
Submit Problem
Online Status
Prob.ID:
Register
Update your info
Authors ranklist
Current Contest
Past Contests
Scheduled Contests
Award Contest
User ID:
Password:
  Register
北京大学《ACM-ICPC竞赛训练》暑期课面向全球招生。容量有限,报名从速!
Language:
Destroying the bus stations
Time Limit: 1000MSMemory Limit: 65536K
Total Submissions: 2343Accepted: 749

Description

Gabiluso is one of the greatest spies in his country. Now he's trying to complete an “impossible” mission - to make it slow for the army of City Colugu to reach the airport. City Colugu has n bus stations and m roads. Each road connects two bus stations directly, and all roads are one way streets. In order to keep the air clean, the government bans all military vehicles. So the army must take buses to go to the airport. There may be more than one road between two bus stations. If a bus station is destroyed, all roads connecting that station will become no use. What's Gabiluso needs to do is destroying some bus stations to make the army can't get to the airport in k minutes. It takes exactly one minute for a bus to pass any road. All bus stations are numbered from 1 to n. The No.1 bus station is in the barrack and the No. n station is in the airport. The army always set out from the No. 1 station.

No.1 station and No. n station can't be destroyed because of the heavy guard. Of course there is no road from No.1 station to No. n station.

Please help Gabiluso to calculate the minimum number of bus stations he must destroy to complete his mission.

Input

There are several test cases. Input ends with three zeros.
For each test case:
The first line contains 3 integers, n, m and k. (0 < n <= 50,0 < m <= 4000, 0 < k < 1000)
Then m lines follows. Each line contains 2 integers, s and f, indicating that there is a road from station No. s to station No. f.

Output

For each test case, output the minimum number of stations Gabiluso must destroy.

Sample Input

5 7 3 
1 3 
3 4 
4 5 
1 2 
2 5 
1 4 
4 5 
0 0 0

Sample Output

2

Source

[Submit]   [Go Back]   [Status]   [Discuss]

Home Page   Go Back  To top


All Rights Reserved 2003-2013 Ying Fuchen,Xu Pengcheng,Xie Di
Any problem, Please Contact Administrator