Online JudgeProblem SetAuthorsOnline ContestsUser
Web Board
Home Page
Statistical Charts
Submit Problem
Online Status
Update your info
Authors ranklist
Current Contest
Past Contests
Scheduled Contests
Award Contest
User ID:
The Bottom of a Graph
Time Limit: 3000MSMemory Limit: 65536K
Total Submissions: 13851Accepted: 5642


We will use the following (standard) definitions from graph theory. Let V be a nonempty and finite set, its elements being called vertices (or nodes). Let E be a subset of the Cartesian product V×V, its elements being called edges. Then G=(V,E) is called a directed graph.
Let n be a positive integer, and let p=(e1,...,en) be a sequence of length n of edges ei∈E such that ei=(vi,vi+1) for a sequence of vertices (v1,...,vn+1). Then p is called a path from vertex v1 to vertex vn+1 in G and we say that vn+1 is reachable from v1, writing (v1→vn+1).
Here are some new definitions. A node v in a graph G=(V,E) is called a sink, if for every node w in G that is reachable from v, v is also reachable from w. The bottom of a graph is the subset of all nodes that are sinks, i.e., bottom(G)={v∈V|∀w∈V:(v→w)⇒(w→v)}. You have to calculate the bottom of certain graphs.


The input contains several test cases, each of which corresponds to a directed graph G. Each test case starts with an integer number v, denoting the number of vertices of G=(V,E), where the vertices will be identified by the integer numbers in the set V={1,...,v}. You may assume that 1<=v<=5000. That is followed by a non-negative integer e and, thereafter, e pairs of vertex identifiers v1,w1,...,ve,we with the meaning that (vi,wi)∈E. There are no edges other than specified by these pairs. The last test case is followed by a zero.


For each test case output the bottom of the specified graph on a single line. To this end, print the numbers of all nodes that are sinks in sorted order separated by a single space character. If the bottom is empty, print an empty line.

Sample Input

3 3
1 3 2 3 3 1
2 1
1 2

Sample Output

1 3


[Submit]   [Go Back]   [Status]   [Discuss]

Home Page   Go Back  To top

All Rights Reserved 2003-2013 Ying Fuchen,Xu Pengcheng,Xie Di
Any problem, Please Contact Administrator